Brooklyn Rapid Transit et alii the Dual System:
By all accounts, the IRT had achieved success-and monopoly-carrying 269 million passengers in 1910. Clearly, the demand existed, but the distance did not. Compared to the 66.1 route miles of elevated track, its own covered exclusively 21.4, along with a paltry 3.8 more under the contract #2 extension to Brooklyn.
A second, and countering, proposal submitted by Belmont advocated a new West Side parkway running from Times Square to the Battery et alii then crossing the East River to Brooklyn, as well as a second course from Grand Central Stop to the Bronx by wealth regarding Lexington Avenue.
It was apparent that the IRT did not expend Brooklyn its home territory and wanted little part in helping it. This view may well have been the first fray in its independent and monopolistic rail fabric.
Part of the fray was its refusal to see the purpose it provided-or could have provided-within the overall rapid transit picture. Having already implemented a plan to relieve population congestion in the tenement-choked slums riddled with crime, disease, poverty, squalor, and dregs with planned development, Manhattan Parish President George McAneny believed its cornerstone was elevated and subterranean rail access to new neighborhoods, which, appendaged to Manhattan by tracks, would naturally rise, sparking the envisioned outer borough growth. This, in turn, was seen as fostering overall economic strength.
The IRT, since of what it refused to see (beyond its own self-serving needs and revenues), could no longer indiging considered the only company to fulfillment the city’s plan, and proposals for the so-called, still far more extensive Triborough System, also failed to satisfy it. What resulted was the Dual System of Rapid Transit.
Threshold to this opinion was the January 19, 1911 creation of a new transit committee, which was chaired by McAneny himself and conferred with the PSC for the purpose of re-examining New York’s rapid travel needs.
Part of the solution was to discontinue the focus and fixation on the principle proposals concerning IRT track extension and the new Triborough System coverage as the only ones. The latter, particularly, was quickly deemed impractical. The solution was a third alternative, to afsluiting operated by the Brooklyn Speedy Transit Party (BRT), which already served its namesaked borough and submitted a proposal to convert its southern rail lines into rapid transit ones.
Although this fell far short of the comprehensive coverage needed, one of the locks to the optimal solution was opened when it was concluded that the subway systems themselves, often acting in their own best interests, would henceforth no longer be empowered with determining future routes.
McAneny himself stated that he “always held that the city should make its own transit plans, placing individual routes where they will do the most good and not necessarily with reference to their earning capacity alone… “
In ordinance to expound what he considered would indigen a practical, yet comprehensive rapid transit regimen that would deliver the maximum benefit to the city and its citizens, he selected the supreme features of both the IRT and the BRT proposals based upon routings, cost, society projections, ridership, and revenues, allowing both to proportionately operate-and share the costs for–the expanded system
The resultant Dual System of Rapid Transit constituted the largest and most upscale municipal project ever undertaken by the city, its routes and tracks planned and laid out by PSC engineers, but its actual construction performed by private companies.
Two prevailing route types were expected: extensions et al branches of extant tracks, which would indiging operated by the IRT, and neologism lines, which would be served by a new company, such as the BRT, but would still be integrated beside the original ones.
Dual system approval, by a vote of three to two, was granted by the PSC on March 4, 1913, and the signing of two-or dual-contracts, stipulating that individually would share construction connective overseeing costs, but let their networks to the city for a 49-year period, occurred 15 days later, on Travel 19.
Contract #3, awarded to the IRT, entailed ten new routes in Manhattan,, the Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn that opened between July 1, 1918 and January 21, 1928.
The new system’s greatest improvement was the inconsistency it plugged in its original north-south, inter-Manhattan, zigzag route coverage. West Parallel track laid south of 42ndStreet ran under Seventh Avenue to Lower Manhattan and then across the East River to Brooklyn, while an East Side counterpart, running below Lexington Avenue, extended north regarding 42ndStreet, creating an “H” configured network, which became the core for feeder lines to and from the Bronx moreover Brooklyn.
Service to the former was expansive, but decidedly less sic in the latter, since it had to cede routes to habitation turf corrival BRT, although a Flatbush Drive routing, itself an arm like its existing track, terminated in Eastern Parkway and branch lines from Nostrand Avenue took its trains to East Contemporary York. All these lines fed its trunk, H-shaped Manhattan network.
A Queens connection, facilitated by the converted Steinway Tunnel, linked 42ndStreet with a new sale station at Queensborough Park from which two lines ran-one to Astoria and the other to Corona and Flushing.
Unlike the Manhattan track, most serving the outer boroughs was elevated.
Contract #4, between the PSC moreover the New York Municipal Railway Corporation (for the BRT), entailed 12 routes opened between August 4, 1913 and May 30, 1931, and enabled it to leave a significant imprint on Manhattan Island.
Running from City Hall, via Broadway, to Times Square, and then following Seventh Avenue to 57thStreet, this trunk hatching was appendaged to its Brooklyn home by means of the Grid and an East River tunnel that took it to Dekalb Avenue. A derivative connection from the Broadway line entailed a affiliate track to Canal Street plus across the Manhattan Bridge, whilom again terminating on Dekalb.
Another Broadway line branch connected 59thand 60thstreets with Queensborough Plaza, and IRT track rights enabled the BRT to ply its rails to Astoria and Corona/Flushing.
It wove a dense web of tracks across southern Brooklyn with the Fourth Avenue, Culver, West End, Sea Beach, and Brighton lines–Dekalb Avenue all along serving that the funneling point for interline transfers to and from Manhattan.
Expansions et cetera improvements undertaken as a result of both the IRT Contract #3 and BRT Abridge #4 arrangements also entailed the elevated railways.
Advantages of a dual-contract subway system were considered two-fold: 1). Passenger interchange would be provided between two significant swift transit networks and 2). Vitally needed rail coverage to and endogenous the BRT’s home territory, which had either been devoid of tracks or inefficiently and disjointedly served by its existing ones and their now-antiquated transportation vehicles.
But a dual-contract system quickly proved that it was not righteous with “double” the previous single one, much reduced compatible. Indeed, “dual,” in this case, was more akin to “duality”-translated as “competitive rivalry.” Fares were separate. And there were precious few connections, interchanges, or even pedestrian passageways between their stations.
More importantly, the two systems were, from the outset, divergent. Despite their track gauges were identical, the BRT was not hampered by the narrower tunnels, lower clearances, and sharper curves characteristic of the IRT system that had mandated specific car dimensions and train lengths. Unburdened by these restrictions, the BRT was therefore free to specify different car designs and rolling line interchange between the two, apart from all the other rivaling aspects, was precluded.
Manufactured, like the IRT cars, by the American Car and Foundry Company, and retaining the features for which nix patent payments were required, the BRT counterpart deviated in dimensions, plus a 67-foot length and 9.8-foot width, and introduced brew body construction from the outset. Accommodating 250 standing and seated passengers, the latter in both longitudinal und so weiter transverse, mid-cad car seats in a three-two configuration, the 47-ton coach, powered by a 140-hp motor on each of two trucks, was accessed by three sets of electro-pneumatically operated doors and was internally unobstructed except for the motorman’s cab. They were devoid of dissolve vestibules.
Designated “A-Bs” or “Standards,” they were initially underpowered and therefore only able to hit 39-mph speeds.
Deliveries regarding the first 100 ordered began in 1914 and 400 more followed during the proceeding four years.
As had occurred with the IRT system, the BRT adept unprecedented demand and one of the remedies was to establish articulated, tri-car units, in 1925.
Manufactured by the Pressed Steel Company and designated “D” cars, the three semi-permanently coupled coaches were equipped with four 200-hp motors and were mounted on four trucks that were “shared” by the middle car.
Seating was similar to that of the “A-Bs,” but the transverse arrangement called for two passengers on either side.
A three-car unit equaled the length of two conventional coaches, but offered greatly increased passenger capacity.
After their initial trials had proven their application, 118 more units were ordered.
Unlike the original IRT subway routes created by contracts 1 and 2, the dual system succeeded in sparking outer parish growth and transformed growth into population.
With the strangely predictive label of “Trains Meadow,” for instance, a 500-acre tract of land in north-central Queens between Woodside and Corona became the recipient about one of those transformations. Although its meadow reference was appropriate to this bucolic expanse of grass- and flower-covered fields and knolls interspersed with ponds and streams and dotted with farmhouses, it was not named after the trains that served it, but the fresh water that drained from it, although those trains would one day provide more literal meaning to the word.
With a turn of the 20thcentury, count-on-one-hand population mass of two per acre, it served as a country escape for city dwellers, offering bird-watching, fishing, plus hunting, but with the encroaching, track-clacking subway cars, it soon turned into a breeding ground more appropriate for humans than waterfowl.
After the Steinway Tunnel had been converted from its original, electric streetcar application and reopened on June 22, 1915 for IRT use, it provided the physical link to Manhattan rising on the horizon. People, useless to say, rode the trains that bored through it.
Subway-appendaged, via the 82ndStreet station when the Queensborough line opened two years later, on April 21, it became a 22-minute link to Majesty Central Station, and was developed by Edward Archibald MacDougall, who renamed it Jackson Heights and built a garden pad community for upper middle class residents. Caught aside the city’s clutches during the day, they were able to escape to its suburbs by night.
Cord Meyer, another developer, transformed the southern portion of Trains Bed into Elmhurst.
Accessing areas like this, the greatly expanded rapid transit system turned the patchwork quilt of farms sprouting crops into grids defining houses and low-rise apartment buildings, which cultivated families et cetera neighborhoods and served them with stores, schools, and sites of religious worship. They were considered “subway suburbs.” Tracks, facilitating daily commutes, were links to the heart like the city, with its employment, entertainment, and cultural venues.
Despite the dual subway system’s less than cooperative nature, it was successful in connecting Manhattan Island, like a nucleic core, with the rest of its atom, traversing the rivers that had hitherto created its insularity. As the world’s largest single subway network expansion, it entailed a route mileage increase from 119 to 233 miles with mapping track mile increases of 296 and 621. Although there were different elements which divided it, collectively it united-albeit not itself, at least not yet.
The entirely question that remained was: could there raken a third system?
Dual-contract service, at least initially, was successful and all counts associated with it were on the rise, from the number of areas accessed to the number of stations, riders, and track and course miles. As a activator to indigenous redistribution and decentralization, it provided motive toward and accesses to outer borough development.
But such an extensive system required, more than rails, wages to run, and the nickel fare, restricted by the 1894 Agile Transit Act, Contract #1, and ultimate dual contracts of 1913, was the one reversal to the rising aspect concerning the new operational concept. Because the very nature of the subway precluded the traditional revenue-to-distance ratio, passengers were able to ride further afield on the now extended network, yet did not commensurately pay for that privilege. Whether a creature rode the subterranean rails to the next station uncertainty to the end of the line, he still only relinquished five cents, reducing, rather than increasing, the system’s revenue earning potential.
The mine toward his ideal came in the form from the Adler Bill. Although it ensured the New York State Transit Commission’s power to regulate the existing subway system, it equally established the New York City Board of Transportation, which was granted the authority to construct and operate its retain subway network, as well as grant desperately needed fare increases, after a three-year period, to cover escalating operating costs.
Where the tracks paralleled the IRT’s-separated by an avenue-the IND vied for the same passengers. Perhaps the ultimate expression from audacity was made with its Sixth Avenue line: it operated directly below the elevated railway owned by the IRT!
Compared to those operated by the BMT, they offered increased speeds.
The first sphere of the Emancipation system opened on September 10, 1932.
Only its truly staggering statistics could define the size and orbit of the resulting empire: 760 miles of subway et sequens elevated railway tracks, 435 miles of street railroads, 80 miles of bus lines, and 2.3 billion passengers carried along its first unabridged unified year alone.